Euan Cochrane has been one of those helping me with my PowerPoint slide problem (see this post), and had previously helped me with the Amiga problem I mentioned in the previous post. Euan has left a long comment on that post; I think it’s really valuable, so, with pemission, I’m quoting it here in full. I had certainly misremembered some details from the earlier Amiga activity! I’ll make my own remarks in a later post.
I thought it necessary to give a bit of the other side of the emulation story.
Firstly, as you later remembered and mentioned on twitter, most of (all?) the text from the dissertation on the Amiga disks was eventually extracted and moved to a modern environment using postscript printing and pdf. This is an important point as it addresses your final (and main?) point: that you are worried about emulation as it traps content in old environments. The example illustrates a scenario that is actually quite a common approach for getting content out of emulated or virtualised environments, i.e. printing to a virtual printer which saves a file which can then be accessed on the host pc (or a remotely connected pc). There are other methods also, many emulators and virtualisation tools enable text to be copied between environments and all of them can have screenshots captured from them. Virtually all emulators and virtualisation tools also enable files to be saved out from them so that emulated software can be used to migrate content to more modern or more open formats (e.g. http://www.openplanetsfoundation.org/blogs/2012-02-20-ufcmigrate-service-now-available ).
But more importantly in the case of the powerpoint files there was no other option other than using old software to open and migrate the files. I find this important because it is an instance of having no choice but to make sense of the old software in order to preserve access to the thing you were trying to preserve access to. The point I’m getting to is that when you said:
” systems in those days were MUCH more flaky than they are now. The thought of having to try to install a software package on an emulated system base without a strong team of experienced people nearby was… worrying!”
I felt like you were over emphasising a minor problem. The reason I say that is because in both of the examples you cited above someone was (reasonably easily) able to install the right software and access the files. For instance, after we tweeted about the powerpoint files it was a matter of hours before someone had accessed them using an old version of the powerpoint for mac software.
In actuality I think that (for the most part) emulation requires a much smaller/simpler set of technical skills than the alternative preservation methods that are available. It seems to me that the average new archives/librarian grad would have no trouble installing most old software applications on a virtual or emulated environment. Moreover my experience with migration tools has been that they are technically challenging and complicated to configure and even more difficult to verify for efficacy.
But that is just opinion (though it would be great to get someone to verify that). I think an important point to be made here is that emulation worked in both of the cases you mentioned AND it provided a high quality, probably complete, version of the original interaction environment that the user had originally interacted with. This is something migration simply cannot do. In cases where information integrity is important then there really is no choice. And in cases where we don’t know if it will be important or not, then surely we should make sure the option is available? And finally we are at my main point: if we are going to need to make emulation available for most things then we need to address the very things you are talking about in your post. While I don’t think the problems are nearly as bad as you have painted them in this post I do agree that some old software is difficult to install, some emulators are difficult to configure, but that doesn’t mean we should just give up though! We should take this as a challenge and overcome it. We should make emulation seamless for the end-user and easy for the average archivist/librarian/consumer/business person to use to access their valued old digital objects.
There are examples of this happening already and we should build on them and make them work more widely. The Good Old Games Website (http://www.gog.com) incorporates emulators to enable access to old games that it sells for use on modern operating systems and it does this without the end user ever knowing. The remote gaming services that are popping up like Onlive (www.onlive.com) give examples of how we could make remote emulation seamless for the end-user. (e.g. http://www.openplanetsfoundation.org/blogs/2012-05-14-next-generation-access-emulation-onlive-gaikai-dp) . When I use virtualbox on my computer to virtualise modern operating systems I can easily and seamless move my mouse from the host OS (in my case Windows 7) to the virtualised OS, and I can also copy text between them and (if I want to configure it) share folders of files between them – These features should be added to those emulators that don’t have them. Its a matter of will and $$ and nowhere near impossible.
I posted a while back about how emulation might be incorporated into a generic digital preservation workflow: http://digitalcontinuity.org/post/20400819609/incorporating-emulation-into-a-business-as-usual . I strongly feel that it provides the most viable long-term solution to most preservation needs and I hope I can change your mind about it also!